Everything You Need to Know About Pelvic Pain

Introduction to Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is a complex and often misunderstood condition that affects many individuals, both men and women, at some point in their lives. It can have a profound impact on daily life, causing discomfort, and distress, and even affecting one's mental and emotional well-being. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore pelvic pain from a pelvic health perspective, covering its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and preventive measures.

Understanding Pelvic Pain

  1. What Is Pelvic Pain?

    Pelvic pain refers to discomfort or pain in the lower abdominal area, specifically in the region below the belly button and between the hips. It is a broad term that encompasses various types of pain, ranging from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic.

  2. Types of Pelvic Pain

    • Musculoskeletal Pelvic Pain: This type of pain is related to issues in the musculoskeletal system, such as muscle imbalances, joint dysfunction, or ligament strain. Musculoskeletal pelvic pain can be caused by poor posture, injury, or overuse of muscles.

    • Visceral Pelvic Pain: Visceral pain originates from the internal organs within the pelvic area, such as the bladder, uterus, or intestines. Conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), endometriosis, or interstitial cystitis can lead to visceral pelvic pain.

    • Neuropathic Pelvic Pain: Neuropathic pain results from nerve dysfunction or damage. Conditions like pudendal neuralgia or pelvic floor neuralgia can cause neuropathic pelvic pain, characterized by shooting or burning sensations.

Causes of Pelvic Pain

  1. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    The pelvic floor is a group of muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues that support the organs in the pelvic region. Dysfunction in the pelvic floor muscles can lead to pelvic pain, urinary or fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. Common causes include childbirth, surgery, trauma, or chronic constipation.

  2. Gynecological Issues

    • Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. It can cause severe pelvic pain, especially during menstruation.

    • Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus (fibroids) can lead to pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and discomfort during intercourse.

  3. Urological Conditions

    • Interstitial Cystitis: A chronic bladder condition characterized by frequent urination and pelvic pain.

    • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Infections of the urinary tract can cause lower abdominal pain, urgency, and discomfort.

  4. Gastrointestinal Disorders

    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common gastrointestinal disorder that can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits, often accompanied by pelvic discomfort.
  5. Musculoskeletal Issues

    • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: Dysfunction or inflammation in the sacroiliac joint, which connects the spine to the pelvis, can lead to lower back and pelvic pain.

    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection of the female reproductive organs, often caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can result in pelvic pain.

Symptoms of Pelvic Pain

  1. Chronic or Recurrent Pain: Persistent pain in the lower abdominal or pelvic area that may be dull, aching, or sharp in nature.

  2. Pain During Intercourse: Discomfort or pain experienced during sexual intercourse, known as dyspareunia.

  3. Urinary Symptoms: Frequent urination, urgency, or pain during urination can be associated with pelvic pain.

  4. Bowel Symptoms: Changes in bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea, or abdominal bloating may accompany pelvic pain.

  5. Menstrual Irregularities: Pelvic pain can coincide with menstrual periods or lead to irregular cycles in some cases.

  6. Emotional Impact: Chronic pelvic pain can lead to emotional distress, anxiety, and depression due to its impact on daily life and activities.

Diagnosing Pelvic Pain

Accurate diagnosis of pelvic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, as the condition can have various underlying causes. Your healthcare provider may perform:

  1. Medical History: A detailed discussion of your symptoms, medical history, and any relevant factors.

  2. Physical Examination: A pelvic examination to assess for tenderness, masses, or abnormalities.

  3. Imaging Studies: Ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI may be used to visualize the pelvic area and identify any structural issues.

  4. Laboratory Tests: Blood tests and cultures to rule out infections or other systemic issues.

  5. Endoscopy: A procedure that allows the visualization of internal organs, often used for diagnosing conditions like endometriosis.

  6. Neurological Evaluation: Nerve conduction studies or electromyography (EMG) to assess nerve function in cases of neuropathic pain.

Treatment Options

  1. Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy: Pelvic floor physical therapy, performed by trained therapists, focuses on strengthening and relaxing the pelvic floor muscles, addressing muscle imbalances, and improving overall pelvic health.

  2. Medications: Depending on the underlying cause, medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or antibiotics may be prescribed.

  3. Lifestyle Modifications: Dietary changes, stress management techniques, and exercises to improve posture can alleviate pelvic pain.

  4. Surgery: In cases of severe conditions like endometriosis, fibroids, or structural abnormalities, surgical intervention may be necessary.

  5. Nerve Blocks or Injections: For neuropathic pain, nerve blocks or injections may provide relief by targeting specific nerves.

Preventing Pelvic Pain

While not all causes of pelvic pain can be prevented, some strategies can help reduce the risk:

  1. Maintain Good Posture: Proper posture can reduce the strain on pelvic muscles and joints.

  2. Stay Active: Regular exercise, especially core-strengthening exercises, can help support the pelvic region.

  3. Practice Safe Sex: Reducing the risk of STIs can lower the chances of pelvic inflammatory disease.

  4. Manage Chronic Conditions: Properly managing conditions like IBS or endometriosis can help prevent pelvic pain episodes.

  5. Pelvic Health Check-ups: Regular check-ups with a pelvic health specialist can help identify and address issues early.


Pelvic pain is a complex and multifaceted condition that requires a thorough evaluation to determine its underlying cause. Seeking timely medical attention and appropriate treatment can significantly improve one's quality of life and alleviate the discomfort associated with pelvic pain. Remember that you don't have to navigate this journey alone; pelvic health specialists are available to provide guidance and support tailored to your specific needs. By understanding the factors contributing to pelvic pain and exploring the available treatment options, you can take proactive steps toward pelvic health and overall well-being.




About the Author: Dr. Vanessa

Dr. Vanessa
Dr. Vanessa Is SWFL's Leading Pelvic Floor Therapist. Each And Every Week She Helps Her Patients Return To Living An Active And Pain-Free Life By Diagnosing And Treating Some Of The Most Complicated & Personal Matters Patients Deal With.
Get a Copy of Our FREE Pelvic Health Report